Khartoum is located where the White Nile and the Blue Nile converge. The city was founded in 1821 as part of Ottoman Egypt. During The Siege of Khartoum, the city was captured by Mahdist forces, who destroyed it and caused the massacre of the defending Anglo-Egyptian garrison. Reoccupied in 1898 by British forces, Khartoum was rebuilt and served as the seat of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan government until 1956, when it became the capital of the independent Republic of Sudan. Nevertheless, the city has continued to experience social and political unrest as it has presided over the longest civil war in African history, leading to the Khartoum massacre, which occurred in 2019 during the Sudanese Revolution and to the displacement of millions in Darfur and the Nuba mountains.
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