The city was established in 1840 near a permanent stream by Capt. Jonker Afrikaner, who had built a stone church for his community. However, in the following decades due to the original settlement was destroyed by multiple wars and armed hostilities between ethnic and religious groups. It was particularly favored for its proximity to freshwater streams, which allowed for crop production in an otherwise impractical area due to dry climatic conditions. When the territory was colonized by the German Empire, Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890. During this period Windhoek rapidly developed within a burgeoning center ringed by three castles: Heinitzburg, Sanderburg, and Schwerinsburg. However, when the city was captured by South Africans on behalf of the British Empire, ending the German era, growth came to a halt. When Namibia became independent in 1990, Windhoek became the capital city and soon developed into the country’s cultural and economic center, experiencing a strong political and cultural revival.